GPR can be efficiently used for the following applications:
It is also often advantageous to carry out GPR investigations within boreholes, both single and as tomographic measurements.
MALÅ GX is an easy-to-use and field proven GPR solution for a wide range of different applications, amongst them tunnel inspection, depth to bedrock, and investigations of underground structures.
Resistivity measurements can provide valuable data for the following applications:
Note! Resistivity and IP surveys can be carried out in combination. The same equipment is used for both and to measure the two parameters instead of one does not necessarily prolong field acquisition times to any great extent. The IP will provide additional complementary information to the resistivity which can be a critical aid to interpretation.
There are also two different approaches to borehole resistivity – the simplest is resistivity logging where a series of electrodes mounted on a probe and the attached cabling are lowered into a borehole to measure the resistivity of the fluid and also the material immediately surrounding the borehole. This provides far more accurate measurements of resistivity values and horizon interfaces than would be possible measuring from the surface. For detailed analysis of deposits further from the borehole, waterproof imaging cables can be lowered into adjacent boreholes and a tomography dataset built up between them.
Self potential (SP) measurements can be used to estimate seepage through embankments. The measurements can either be made as one-off mapping or as long-term monitoring. The SP measurements can be made in combination with resistivity and IP measurements.
Flexible, easy to use and boasting a number of innovative features the ABEM Terrameter LS 2 is the ideal partner for geotechnical, groundwater, mineral or environmental surveys and research work
To improve the detail achievable at depth, seismic borehole surveys can be undertaken. There are multiple means of doing this from simple, low-cost down-hole measurements (where a regular source is used at the surface and a geophone is lowered into the borehole) through cross-hole measurements (a source is lowered into one borehole whilst a receiver is placed in another) right up to full tomographic survey (multiple shot and receiver locations within adjacent boreholes).
Whilst there are many factors involved in deciding upon the correct solution for a given project, these are some of the key considerations:
Note! Most often a combination of different geophysical methods or other investigations techniques will be most effective.